Abstract: , Manufacturing goods make over 75% of the EU’s export volume yet control of the industrial processes continues in a highly centralised and hierarchical manner rather than in a distributed way. Material handling components, e.g. cranes, forklifts and AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles), are largely operated manually using extremely heterogeneous hardware. Industry 4.0 concepts, like collaborative or component based automation, must be embraced as the next stage in manufacturing and material handling, to move forward towards greater software modularity, interoperable frameworks and the realisation of an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
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